Titanium,  22Ti
Titan-crystal bar.JPG
General properties
Pronunciation /tɪˈtniəm/[۱] or /tˈtniəm/
tih-TAY-nee-əm or ty-TAY-nee-əm
Appearance silvery grey-white metallic
Titanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Atomic number (Z) 22
Group, period group 4, period 4
Block d-block
Element category   transition metal
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 47.867(1)[۲]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 10, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F)
Boiling point 3560 K ​(3287 °C, ​5949 °F)
Density near r.t. 4.506 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 4.11 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 14.15 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 425 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.54
Ionization energies 1st: 658.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 1309.8 kJ/mol
3rd: 2652.5 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 147 pm
Covalent radius 160±8 pm
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for titanium
Speed of sound thin rod 5090 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 8.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 21.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 420 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +153.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 116 GPa
Shear modulus 44 GPa
Bulk modulus 110 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.32
Mohs hardness 6.0
Vickers hardness 830–3420 MPa
Brinell hardness 716–2770 MPa
CAS Number 7440-32-6
Discovery William Gregor (1791)
First isolation Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)
Named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)
Main isotopes of titanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life Decay mode Pro­duct
44Ti syn 63 y ε 44Sc
46Ti 8.25% is stable
47Ti 7.44% is stable
48Ti 73.72% is stable
49Ti 5.41% is stable
50Ti 5.18% is stable
| references | in Wikidata
Sc ←

i'box Sc

Ti E
→ V

i'box V

v · e


  1. titanium - definition of titanium in English | Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press (2017).
  2. (2016) «Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)». Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. DOI:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  3. Andersson, N. (2003). «Emission spectra of TiH and TiD near 938 nm». J. Chem. Phys. 118. DOI:10.1063/1.1539848.
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
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