کؤمک:آلمان دیلی‌نین بین‌الخلق فونتیکا الیفباسی

آشاغی‌داکی جدول‌لر بین‌الخالق فونتیکا الیفباسی (IPA) دیرلار کی آلمان دیلینین تلفوظ‌لاری‌نین یولونو ویکی‌پدیا مقاله‌لرینده گؤرسدیر.

اینگیلیس دیلی‌نین بنزرلیک‌لری بعضی موردلرده چوْخ گۆمانلی دیرلار، و ساده‌جه بیر بۆتونلوک بیلگی وئرمک اۆچون تلفوظ‌دا نظرده آلینیب‌لار. سس‌لره دیقّتلی باخماق اۆچون آلمان‌جا فونولوژی‌سینه باخین.

زبان آلمانی هیچ میزان تأکید واژه‌ای ندارد، بنابراین نشان‌های تأکید نباید در آوانویسی واژه‌های آلمانی به کار رود. بورایا شرح اۆچون باخین.

آشاغی‌داکی جدول‌لر بین‌الخالق فونتیکا الیفباسی (IPA) دیرلار کی آلمان دیلینین تلفوظ‌لاری‌نین یولونو ویکی‌پدیا مقاله‌لرینده گؤرسدیر.

Consonants
آلمان اوتریش سوئیس Examples English approximation
DE AT CH
شابلون:IPA link bei[۱] ball
شابلون:IPA link ich, durch; China (DE)[۲] hue
شابلون:IPA link dann[۱] done
شابلون:IPA link für, von, Phänomen fuss
شابلون:IPA link gut[۱] guest
شابلون:IPA link hat hut
شابلون:IPA link Jahr, Yo-Yo yard
شابلون:IPA link kann, Tag,[۳] cremen, sechs cold
شابلون:IPA link Leben last
شابلون:IPA link Mantel bottle
شابلون:IPA link Mann must
شابلون:IPA link großem rhythm
شابلون:IPA link Name not
شابلون:IPA link beiden sudden
شابلون:IPA link lang long
شابلون:IPA link Person, ab[۳] puck
شابلون:IPA link Pfeffer cupful
شابلون:IPA link شابلون:IPA link reden[۴] DE: French rouge
AT, CH: Scottish red
شابلون:IPA link lassen, Haus, groß fast
شابلون:IPA link schon, Stadt, spitz, Champagner, Ski shall
شابلون:IPA link Tag, und, Stadt[۳] tall
شابلون:IPA link Zeit, Platz, Potsdam, Celle cats
شابلون:IPA link Matsch, Cello match
شابلون:IPA link was, Vase[۱] vanish
شابلون:IPA link nach[۲] Scottish loch
شابلون:IPA link Sie, diese[۱] zebra
شابلون:IPA link beamtet[۵]
([bəˈʔamtət])
uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
شابلون:IPA link Dschungel, Pidgin[۱][۶] jungle
شابلون:IPA link Spray[۷] rice
شابلون:IPA link Genie, Entourage[۱][۶] pleasure
Stress
شابلون:IPA link Bahnhofstraße
([ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə])
as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
شابلون:IPA link
Vowels
آلمان اوتریش سوئیس Examples English approximation
DE AT CH
Monophthongs
شابلون:IPA link alles, Kalender father, but short
شابلون:IPA link aber, sah, Staat father
شابلون:IPA link Ende, hätte bet
شابلون:IPA link spät, wählen[۸] RP hair
شابلون:IPA link eben, gehen, Meer mate
شابلون:IPA link ist sit
شابلون:IPA link liebe, Berlin, ihm seed
شابلون:IPA link kommen off
شابلون:IPA link oder, hohe, Boot story
شابلون:IPA link öffnen somewhat like hurt
شابلون:IPA link Österreich, Möhre, adieu somewhat like heard
شابلون:IPA link und push
شابلون:IPA link Hut, Kuh true
شابلون:IPA link müssen, Ypsilon somewhat like cute
شابلون:IPA link über, Mühe, psychisch somewhat like few
Diphthongs
ein, Kaiser, Haydn, Verleih, Speyer high
auf vow
ɔʏ Euro, Häuser roughly like choice
Reduced vowels
شابلون:IPA link ər immer[۴] DE, AT: frustration
CH: Scottish letter[۹]
شابلون:IPA link Name balance (but not sofa)[۹]
Semivowels
ɐ̯ r Uhr[۴] DE, AT: sofa
CH: Scottish far
شابلون:IPA link Studie yard
شابلون:IPA link aktuell would
Non-native vowels
ãː Gourmand, Engagement, Restaurant, Chance[۱۰] French Provence
ɛ̃ː Pointe[۱۰] French quinze
ɛɪ̯ Mail[۱۱] roughly like face
õː Garçon[۱۰] French Le Monde
ɔʊ̯ Code[۱۱] American goat
œ̃ː Parfum[۱۰] French emprunte
œːɐ̯ øːr Gouverneur[۱۲] roughly like RP bird
Shortened vowels
شابلون:IPA link engagieren[۱۰] French chanson
شابلون:IPA link impair[۱۰] French vingt-et-un
شابلون:IPA link Element[۱۳] roughly like dress
شابلون:IPA link Italien[۱۳] seat
شابلون:IPA link originell[۱۳] story, but short
شابلون:IPA link fon[۱۰] French Mont Blanc
شابلون:IPA link Lundist[۱۰] French vingt-et-un
شابلون:IPA link Ökonom[۱۳] somewhat like hurt
شابلون:IPA link Universität, Souvenir[۱۳] truth
شابلون:IPA link Psychologie[۱۳] like meet, but with the lips rounded

See alsoدَییشدیر

  • If your browser does not display IPA symbols, you probably need to install a font that includes the IPA. Good free IPA fonts include Gentium and Charis SIL (more complete); a monospaced font is Everson Mono which is complete; download links can be found on those pages.
  • For a guide to adding pronunciations to Wikipedia articles, see the {{IPA}} template.
  • For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation#Entering IPA characters.

Notesدَییشدیر

  1. ۱٫۰ ۱٫۱ ۱٫۲ ۱٫۳ ۱٫۴ ۱٫۵ ۱٫۶ In Austrian Standard German and Swiss Standard German, the lenis obstruents /b, d, ɡ, z, dʒ, ʒ/ are voiceless [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊] and are distinguished from /p, t, k, s, tʃ, ʃ/ only by articulatory strength (/v/ is really voiced). The distinction is also retained word-finally. In German Standard German, voiceless [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊] as well as [v̥] occur allophonically after fortis obstruents and, for /b, d, ɡ/, often also word-initially. See fortis and lenis.
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ [ç] and [x] belong to one phoneme traditionally transcribed /x/. The velar allophone appears after back vowels and /a, aː/ and it may actually be uvular [χ], depending on the variety and speaker. In this guide, the difference between velar and uvular allophones is ignored and both are written with شابلون:Angbr IPA.
  3. ۳٫۰ ۳٫۱ ۳٫۲ In German Standard German, voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ are devoiced to [p, t, k] at the end of a syllable.
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ ۴٫۲ Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only [r], that pronunciation is now found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria. In other regions, the uvular pronunciation prevails, mainly as a fricative/approximant [ʁ]. In many regions except for most parts of Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vocalized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels (in this guide [ɐ̯] is used only after long vowels, following the pronunciation dictionaries), and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ].
  5. The glottal stop occurs in German Standard German. It is not transcribed phrase-initially, where it is just as likely to be used in English as it is in German. Word- and phrase-internal glottal stops are transcribed. Austrian or Swiss Standard German do not have glottal stops (Krech et al. 2009, صفحه‌لر 236, 262).
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ Many speakers lack the lenis /ʒ/ and replace it with its fortis counterpart /ʃ/ (Hall 2003, səh. 42). The same applies to the corresponding lenis /dʒ/, which also tends to be replaced with its fortis counterpart /tʃ/. According to the prescriptive standard, such pronunciations are not correct.
  7. Used in some loanwords from English, especially by younger speakers.
  8. In Northern Germany, /ɛː/ often merges with /eː/ to [].
  9. ۹٫۰ ۹٫۱ As several other Germanic languages, Standard German has mid [ə] and open [ɐ] schwas. Care must be taken to clearly distinguish between the two. In English, the former appears in words such as balance, cannon and chairman and the latter variably in sofa, China (especially at the very end of utterance) and, in some dialects, also in ago and again, but one needs to remember that Standard German [ɐ] has no such free variation and is always open, just as [ə] is always mid. In some English dialects, an unstressed /ʌ/ in words such as frustration and justiciable is a perfect replacement for Standard German [ɐ].
  10. ۱۰٫۰ ۱۰٫۱ ۱۰٫۲ ۱۰٫۳ ۱۰٫۴ ۱۰٫۵ ۱۰٫۶ ۱۰٫۷ The nasal vowels occur in French loans. They are long [ãː, ɛ̃ː, õː, œ̃ː] when stressed and short [ã, ɛ̃, õ, œ̃] when unstressed. In colloquial speech they may be replaced with [aŋ, ɛŋ, ɔŋ, œŋ] irrespective of length, and the [ŋ] in these sequences may optionally be assimilated to the place of articulation of a following consonant, e.g. Ensemble [aŋˈsaŋbl̩] or [anˈsambl̩] for [ãˈsãːbl̩] (Mangold 2005, səh. 65).
  11. ۱۱٫۰ ۱۱٫۱ The diphthongs /ɛɪ̯, ɔʊ̯/ occur only in loanwords (mostly from English), such as okay. Depending on the speaker and the region, they may be monophthongized to [eː, oː] (or [e, o] in an unstressed syllable-final position). Thus, the aforementioned word okay can be pronounced as either [ɔʊ̯ˈkɛɪ̯] or [oˈkeː].
  12. [œːɐ̯] or [øːr] is the German rendering of the English شابلون:Sc2 vowel /[unsupported input]/. It also appears in certain French surnames, e.g. Vasseur (Krech et al. 2009, صفحه‌لر 64, 142).
  13. ۱۳٫۰ ۱۳٫۱ ۱۳٫۲ ۱۳٫۳ ۱۳٫۴ ۱۳٫۵ [e, i, o, ø, u, y], the short versions of the long vowels [eː, iː, oː, øː, uː, yː], are used at the end of unstressed syllables before the accented syllable and occur mainly in loanwords. In native words, the accent is generally on the first syllable, and syllables before the accent other than prepositional prefixes are rare but occasionally occur, e.g. in jedoch [jeˈdɔx], soeben [zoˈʔeːbn̩], vielleicht [fiˈlaɪçt] etc. In casual speech short [e, i, o, ø, u, y] preceding a phonemic consonant (i.e., not a [ʔ]) may be replaced with [ɛ, ɪ, ɔ, œ, ʊ, ʏ], e.g. [jɛˈdɔx], [fɪˈlaɪçt] (Mangold 2005, səh. 65).

Bibliographyدَییشدیر

  • Hall, Christopher (2003) [First published 1992], Modern German pronunciation: An introduction for speakers of English (2nd ed.), Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-6689-1 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667 

شابلون:IPA keys