کؤمک:IPA for English
- The IPA stress mark (ˈ) comes before the syllable that has the stress, in contrast to stress marking in pronunciation keys of some dictionaries published in the United States.
- Words in small capitals are the standard lexical sets. Words in the lexical sets bath and cloth may be given two transcriptions, either with /ɑː/ and /ɔː/, or with /æ/ and /ɒ/, respectively.
- In varieties with flapping, /t/ and /d/ in syllable-final positions between a vowel and an unstressed or word-initial vowel may be pronounced with a tap [ɾ], making the words latter and ladder homophonous. Some dictionaries (such as NOAD) transcribe those instances as 〈d〉, 〈D〉, or 〈t̮〉, but they are not distinguished from /t/ or /d/ in this notation system. In those varieties, the sequence /nt/ in the same environment may also be realized as nasalized tap [ɾ̃], which may sound similar or identical to /n/. This is also not distinguished on Wikipedia.
- If the two characters 〈ɡ〉 and 〈 〉 do not match and if the first looks like a 〈γ〉, then you have an issue with your default font. See Help:IPA § Rendering issues.
- The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labialized velar approximant.
- The IPA value of the letter 〈j〉 is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words: Besides hallelujah, there are fjord, Jägermeister and Jarlsberg cheese.
- /l/ in the syllable coda, as in the words all, cold, or bottle, is pronounced as [o], [u], [w] or a similar sound in many dialects through L-vocalization.
- In most varieties of English, /r/ is pronounced as an approximant [ɹ]. Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
- A number of English words, such as genre and garage, may be pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
- In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. It is also replaced with /h/ in some words, such as Chanukah.
- /ɒ̃, æ̃/ are only found in French loanwords and often replaced by another vowel and a nasal consonant: bon vivant /ˌbɒn viːˈvɑːnt/, ensemble /ɑːnˈsɑːmbəl/, croissant /ˈkwæs.ɑːŋ/.[ref ۱][ref ۲][ref ۳]
- /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
- Some regions, such as New York City and Philadelphia, separate this into two phonemes, /æ/ and /eǝ/, so that the vowel in crash may be closer to that in mail than that in cat. In other dialects, such as General American, the two sounds are allophones. See /æ/ tensing.
- In some regions, what would normally be [æŋ] or [æɡ] is pronounced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], [eɡ] or [eɪɡ], so that the a in rang and rag is closer to the ai in rain than the a in rat.
- /ær/ is pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
- Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷaɪɾɚ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾɚ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾɚ],[قایناق گؤسترین] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
- Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, layer (stratum) and mayor with two syllables, and hire, flour, lair and mare with one. Others pronounce them the same.
- /ɛ/ is transcribed as /e/ by many dictionaries.[ref ۴]
- /ɪər/ is pronounced the same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
- /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
- /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔːr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English. Many dictionaries do not differentiate between them.
- /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔːr/ in dialects with the cure–force merger, including many younger speakers. In England, the merger may not be fully consistent and may only apply to more common words. In conservative RP and Northern England English /ʊər/ is much more commonly preserved than in modern RP and Southern England English. In Australia and New Zealand, /ʊər/ does not exist as a separate phoneme and is replaced either by the sequence /uː.ər/ (/uːr/ before vowels within the same word, save for some compounds) or the monophthong /ɔːr/.
- /oʊ/ is commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
- In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
- /ʌ/ is not used in the dialects of the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
- /i/ is pronounced [i] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with 〈ɪ〉, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to 〈i〉.
- /ᵻ/ is pronounced as /ə/ in Australian and many US dialects and as /ɪ/ in others such as Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between [ɪ̈] and [ə]. While the symbol 〈ᵻ〉 is sometimes used to represent [ɪ̈] as an unofficial extension to the IPA, /ᵻ/ here does not specifically represent [ɪ̈].
- /ᵿ/ is pronounced as /ʊ/ in some dialects and as /ə/ in others. Many speakers freely alternate between [ʊ̈] and [ə]. While the symbol 〈ᵿ〉 is sometimes used to represent [ʊ̈] as an unofficial extension to the IPA, /ᵿ/ here does not specifically represent [ʊ̈].
- It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress,[ref ۸] but it is conventional to notate them as here.
- Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED).
- Syllable divisions are not usually marked, but the IPA dot '.' may be used when it is wished to make explicit where a division between syllables is (or may be) made.
-  pp. 104-106
- /ɛər/ is pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. It is often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE,[ref ۵] but the Oxford Online Dictionaries apparently always use /er/ for AmE despite having /e(ə)r/ in their key to US pronunciations.[ref ۶][ref ۷]
- 〈ᵻ〉 and 〈ᵿ〉 are non-IPA symbols. The way they are used on Wikipedia is based on the OED use.
- Getting JAWS 6.1 to recognize "exotic" Unicode symbols—For help on getting the صفحهخوان JAWS to read IPA symbols
- IPA TTS (text-to-speech) bookmarklet
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